I know too little about your climate to be precise, I'm in Brianza and therefore we are far away. Also take into account that the most suitable crops depend not only on the climate of your area but also on the exposure of the balcony to the sun, so if it faces south or north and if there are sources of shade (buildings, trees, ...). Then you should know how much space you have available on your terrace.
The vegetable garden on the veranda
I think you can safely grow a large amount of garden plants: many are annual cycles so in the winter that you say is very cold they are not kept and the heat can be useful to make the fruits ripen in the best possible way. Some vegetables need very large pots, so do your math for the space you have available.
We are currently in October, it is not a good period for sowing. If the weather is still mild, you could add some short-cycle salads, radishes and spinach. Or plant garlic and peas to harvest them with the arrival of spring heat.
In general, you can grow salads on your terrace, perhaps avoiding doing it in the hottest periods (and obviously during the winter). Spinach and chard are also good in pots if you want vegetables to cook. With slightly larger pots you can also keep carrots, radishes and garlic. If you have supports for climbing your plants, you can keep legumes (peas, beans, green beans) but keep in mind that they don't produce much. With very large pots you can plant tomatoes, peppers, aubergines, cabbage. Among the fruits I recommend strawberries, very easy to manage on the balcony.
Then there are the aromatic herbs that are fantastic to have on the terrace, there are many indicated: rosemary, sage, thyme, mint, marjoram, oregano, ...
I leave out advice on ornamental plants that I don't care much about, I prefer to be able to eat what I grow.